‘Equipment’ is an important category contributing to the second highest number of hazards in all the phases, especially during stunning. Once it is done, no corrective measures to the hazard do exist. Ensure that the rabbits are unconscious before shackling and the size and the design of the shackle are appropriate to the rabbits’ size. Hazard's preventive and corrective measures: Some preventive measures should be taken at the time of transportation: Avoiding coldest hours of the day for transportation of animals will allow them not to experience too extremely cold climatic conditions, which are especially problematic when trucks are not equipped with curtains (EC Reg 1/200522 When rabbits are slaughtered without stunning all the rabbits will experience the welfare consequences related to the hazards they are subjected to. including all possible variations to the slaughter practices that are employed in the world, and that might be unknown to the experts of the WG. Definition: A noise that by its level suddenly induces fear to animal. A selection process was used to identify indicators that are recommended for each of these key stages. Almost all of the hazards originating from staff could be attributed to lack of appropriate skill sets needed to perform tasks or fatigue and therefore have preventive measures, which includes recruitment of people with right attitude and aptitude, staff training and staff rotation. The methodology involves indicator selection based on their ease of use, their specificity and their sensitivity. Process of slaughtering to which it applies: bleeding following stunning (on a proportion of rabbits). Palpebral reflex: The palpebral reflex is elicited by touching or tapping a finger on the inner/outer eye canthus or eyelashes. In this example, three experts judged it as easy, three experts judged it to be moderate and four as difficult to assess. The results of the current assessment related to ToR‐1, 2 and 3 were summarised in ‘Outcome Tables’ (see Section 3.10) following the conceptual model shown in Figure 1. During gradual onset of unconsciousness and death. For long‐lasting effective stun, the bolt should be placed directly on the skull at the intersection of lines drawn from the lateral canthus of each eye to the opposite ear, aiming towards the medulla oblongata (Figure 9). The effective temperature perceived by an animal is the combination of the temperature, the humidity and the ventilation or air speed. Boredom is an important factor that can lead to hazards during slaughter of rabbits. More detail is provided in Appendix C. To support the interpretation, following classes are used: 80% ≤ uncertainty ≤ 100% is regarded as high uncertainty; 50% < uncertainty < 80% is regarded as medium uncertainty; 0% ≤ uncertainty ≤ 50% is regarded as low certainty. Conscious animals will blink in response to the stimulus. There should be sufficient guns such that they are allowed to cool between operations, and they should be cleaned and maintained according to the manufacturer's instruction. The ease of use was assessed for each key stage by the experts and is expressed by different colours (green = easy, orange = moderate, red = difficult). Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, The Union adopted in 2009 Council Regulation (EC) No 1099/2009. An illustration of the duration of unconsciousness required to be induced by a stunning method under humane slaughter conditions (EFSA. ). When rabbits are conscious, they will experience the negative welfare consequences (i.e. In light of this new video exposing the gouging second cuts—and Agriprocessors’ quite different conduct during the tour—Dr. Considering that the restraint of rabbits prior to stunning varies depending on the stunning method, restraint will be assessed as a part of the relevant stunning method (Phase 2). Rosell and de la Fuente (2008) estimated body condition by weighing and palpating different regions. This opinion will also propose preventive and corrective measures that can be put in place by the food business operator in order to prevent or correct for the identified hazards. For bleeding, it was possible to identify three indicators that are highly specific to ensure that the animals are dead. The Rabbit Grimace Scale assesses five different facial action units (orbital tightening, cheek flattening, nose shape, whisker position and ear position) to create an overall score that increases when rabbits experience pain. In total, 28 welfare‐related hazards have been identified, from arrival of the rabbits at the slaughter plant until they are dead. The gas is vaporised before injection and its temperature monitored [see also relevant outcome table (Table 23)]. ensure correct maintenance of the equipment; ensure the equipment includes electrodes for different sized animals; ensure continuous contact between the electrodes and the rabbits; ensure a timer is built in the stunner to monitor the time of exposure or use of a visual or auditory warning system to alert the operator. The Short family have developed and sold The Hopper Popper to satisfied customers since 2013. This approach was adopted in the current opinion to select the indicators for monitoring the state of consciousness and death after stunning and during bleeding. The tables also categorise the indicators according to the methodology explained in Section 2.2.3 into indicators that are suggested, additional or not to be included in the flow charts (see Section 3.6.2). The mandate from the EP asks EFSA to indicate the most suitable stunning and killing methods for rabbits and define indicators to assess unconsciousness and death of the animals for the stunning and bleeding phases. To perform head‐only electrical stunning, the head of the rabbit is positioned in handheld, wall‐mounted or ceiling‐mounted V‐shaped electrodes which are firmly pushed between the back of the eyes and the base of the ears to span the brain (Figure 8) (Anil et al., 1998; Maria et al., 2001). These positions will cause ineffective stun or short‐lasting concussion, and a lot of pain. In such situations, even if welfare consequences are not measurable by using indicators at the slaughterhouse, it does not imply that they do not exist: if the hazard is present, the related welfare consequences should be assumed to be present too. Gasping is mostly characterised by very deep breathing with an open mouth (EFSA, 2004), and it is induced by the increased pCO2 in the blood, which will stimulate the breathing centre in order to wash out CO2. Voltage should be sufficient to overcome resistance in the pathway created by different tissues. In the lairage area, temperature variations can be significant and depend on the time of day and the season. Outcome tables have been prepared to summarise the main results of this opinion and include a concise presentation of all retrieved information. Thirst occurs either when there is a fall in blood volume or when the tonicity of the of interstitial fluid increases. They can act as preventive measure, but if not applied first, can be acting as corrective measures for the hazard and the welfare consequence (cold stress, see Section 3.7.1.1). Detailed and supporting background information are included in the main chapters of this opinion. They were done for each of three phases in the process: immediately following stunning, at the time of neck cutting and during bleeding. This scientific opinion (EFSA‐Q‐2018‐00909) covers welfare aspects of rabbits slaughtered for human consumption, as a result of two requests received by the European Parliament (M‐2018‐0124) and the European Commission (M‐2018‐0182). In key stage 2 (just prior to neck cutting), unconscious rabbits will continue to manifest apnoea. The containers should be located as close as possible to the point of stunning. Definition: Within the shackling procedure, inappropriate shackling of conscious rabbits can occur after ineffective electrical or mechanical stunning, slaughter without stunning, and when the shackles are too narrow or too wide or when rabbits are hung by one leg. The certainty within the judgements of ‘Easiness of application’ is described with 1 minus the relative standard deviation of the mean assuming the observed distribution. The resulting elements were used to address the mandate extensively (see relevant sections in the Assessment chapter) as well as in a more concise way with the development of outcome tables (see Section 2.2.3). Some are specific for a hazard; others can apply to multiple hazards (e.g. The ease of use is expressed by different colours (green = easy, orange = moderate, red = difficult). At lairage, in hot climatic conditions, in addition to ventilation, space between the piles of container should be increased to ensure good circulation of air at rabbit level. The outcome tables related to each process are reported in Section 3.10 (Tables 26 and 27). It is important to note that the need for space is associated with ambient temperature, as animals will need more space to dissipate heat when temperatures increase. This was addressed by identifying the negative consequences on the welfare (so‐called ‘welfare consequences’) and the relevant indicators that can be used to assess qualitatively or quantitatively these welfare consequences. in the case of ‘neck cutting’) (ToR‐3). The Committee proposed that the setting of minimum standards for the protection of farm rabbits could be assisted by an independent scientific opinion from EFSA. 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Penetration of a Beta‐distribution to smooth the outcome identify suitable and unacceptable methods for animal.
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